zondag 17 mei 2020

Dutch FR Fieldbakery

I came accross a plate by Dirk Langendijk which normally is a reliable source of uniforms and situations of this period and which depicted a field bakery at the end of the 18th century
I have never seen a this kind of mobile breadovens so is made a biggger picture of this part of the drawing:

As I wanted a theme for our FR demo game for Crisis 2020 (which is cancelled by the way) I tried to model this ovens and find suitable figures for it in the range of Black Hussar Miniatures which, although ment for the SYW, would be suitable for my little French Revolutionary project.
So after modelling three ovens and ordering and painting the figures this is the result:

And of course you notice it is a Dutch bakery!

donderdag 14 mei 2020

Dutch colonels flags

As stated earlier, the Dutch battalions had two flags, a colonel's flag (mostly with the coat of arms of the province on whose paylist the regiment was or a coat of arms connected with the House of
Orange (eg for the three the Orange-Nassau regiments).
The Swiss regiments were of course an exception as were the regiments of some German princes.

As some of these flags are in the public domain (site of the Rijsmuseum Amsterdam) some colonels flags are underneath with a remark of the regiments (their number) who had these flags.
I based the regiments paying province on the 1793-1795 budget although Ten Raa in the latest "Het Staatse Leger nr IX) has some different province.

As only one flag of some provinces are known, it is of course possible that more designs of a provincial flag were used but that is unknown.

The colonelsflag of a Nassau-Orange regiment. As there are three of these (regiment nr 1, regiment nr 2 and regiment Erfprins) I think they all had the same colonels flag but had different coloured regimental flags). The flag measured 105*98 cm.

The colonels/provincial flag of Groningen (Stad en Lande). These could be used by the regiments:
- nr 2 (van Maneil) and 
- maybe nr 9 (van Randwijck) as the "Het Staatse leger" mentions Groningen as paying province but the budget another province (Holland) -see underneath.
The flag measured 99*95 cm.

The colonels/provincial flag of Holland. This flag measured 97*97 cm.

These could be used by the regiments:
- nr 3 (Van Dopf), 
- nr 4 (Von Wilcke), 
- nr 5 (Des Vilattes), 
- nr 7 (de Bons), 
- nr 8 (Bosc de la Calmette), 
- nr 9 (Van Randwijck-maybe: see Groningen), 
- nr 12 (Bedaulx), 
- nr 14 (Hessen-Darmstadt; probably the regimental showed the Hessen-Darmstadt coat of arms), 
- nr 15 (De Petit), 
- nr 18 (van Wartensleben), 
- nr 21 (Van Westerloo),
- nr 22 (Van Nijvenheim)
- nr 23 (Stuart)
- nr 24 (Bentinck)

The colonels/provincial flag of Overijssel. This flag measured 98*102 cm.

These could be used by the regiment:
- nr 20 (Van Geusau)
Of this last flag it is known that the backside didn't had the coat of arms of Overijssel but the State coat of arms which is:

maandag 13 april 2020

Dutch Artillerry 1792-1795

The Dutch artillery in the French Revolutionary period consisted of 3 branches:
- foot artillery
- horse artillery
- battalion guns


The Dutch military historian J.W. Sypeteijn mentions in his book "Geschiedenis van het regiment Rijdende Artillerie"1852 the following regarding the artillery:

"Omtrent het materieel dat te velde toen werd gebruikt zij nog opgemerkt, dat de affuiten en voertuigen hier te lande sedert 1773 waren ingerigt naar het stelsel van Gribeauval, dat in 1765 in Frankrijk was ingevoerd."

which in English means:"Regarding the material that was used in the field it needs to be mentioned that gun-carriages and transport vehicles since 1773 were following the gribeauval system which was used in France since 1765".

If this is correct; the Dutch used gun-carriges, limbers and vehicles which looked the same as the French. The gun tubes themselves were made in the Dutch Republic itself.

Some pictures of guns from the Dutch Artillery Museum which also show that the colour of the carriage was a dark red and metalworks black. Probably the limbers and other artillery vehicles were painted the same.

The underneath gun is a 6pdr, made by the Maritz factory on a gribeauval carriage.

A Dutch reenactment group (the Stadskanonniers Amersfoort) have a remade gun and limber which are underneath


The field artillery regiment had a strength of 4 (later 5 battalions) each of 5 companies where one company was the same as a battery.

In 1793 a horse artillery contingent were raised of 2 brigades each of 2 companies (ie 2 batteries).
A horse artillery battery consisted of 4 6dr, 2 3pdr and 2 24pdr houwitzers.

Each infantery battalion had two battalion pieces.

The drivers of the artillery were still hired civilians; even the new raised horse artillery had to use the civilian personnel.

zondag 5 april 2020

German auxiliary troops in Dutch pay: 1 Mecklenburg-Schwerin

In 1787 the Prussian army had to save the house of Orange from the revolutionaries (or patriots as they call themselves) who had to fled to France.
The ruling house of Orange was thus saved but according to the Stadtholder William V, too little troops were available to hold the patriots in check.

So on the 5th of May 1788 a treaty with Mecklenburg-Schwerin was closed to deliver troops to the Dutch of appr. 1.000 men in 3 battalions.

In the summer of 1788 the organisation of this korps was:

Commanding officer: Generalmajor Von Gluer

Grenadier Battalion: Oberstleutnant Winter

Infantry regiment von Gluer: Generalmajor Von Gluer consisting of 2 battalions:
1st musketier battlion: Generalmajor von Gluer
2nd musketierbattalion: Oberstleutnant von Pressentin

On the 31st of August 1788 the korps arrived in the Netherlands after a journey of  more then a month; they departed on the 28th of July.
After that they had a peacefull and easy service as the patriots didn't show up until in 1792 the French revolution arrived.

The organisation was kept the same although Oberst von Pressentin became the commanding officer of the korps, the infantry regiment and of the first musketier battalion.
The second battalion received Oberstleutnant von Krievitz as commanding officer.

As the French declared war on the Dutch (technically only on the ruling house of Orange) in 1793,  the peacefull service for the Mecklenburg-Schwerin Korps was over.

In 1793 the strength of the korps was:
Grenadierbattalion: 13 officers and 285 men (298 total)
1st musketier battalion: 13 officers and 282 men (total 295)
2nd musketier battalion: 13 officers and 284 men (total 297)
a grand total of 39 officers and 851 men (890 total)

The strength of the korps gradually declined through losses, desertion but also new recruits were added so in December 1794 the total strength was 847 officers and men.

In january 1795 the strength of the korps was:
Grenadier battalion:        13 officers and 272 men (285 total)
1st musketier battalion:   13 officers and 262 men (total 275)
2nd musketier battalion: 10 officers and 253 men (total 263)
a grand total of 36 officers and 787 men (823 total)

In the year 1795, disorganisation through the Dutch State and army spread (and changed to the Batavian Republic), the korps declined in strength significant so that in December 1795 the total strength in men was 667 a loss of 120 men against the strength of January 1795.
In January 1796 the regiment went home.

Regarding the war record; they formed part of the garrison of Grave in 1793, went with the field army in March 1793 but did not fight and went into garrison again in Bois le Duc ('s Hertogenbosch) and in april 1793 to Bergen op Zoom. In April 1794 they went into garrsion in Maestricht and stayed there until this city surrendered in november 1794. They were exchanged with French prisoners and came in january 1795 in Utrecht (without arms and equipment).

For the wargamer the following information regarding uniforms and flags: the uniforms look similar to the Prussian army or German units (in formal dress) of the AWI period (so for wargames maybe these could be used to portray the Mecklenburg-Schwerin troops. Some pictures:


Notice that somethings white lacings is shown on lapels. I have the impression this is used on older uniforms but the FR period uniforms are without lacing.

Regarding colours; the 2 musketier battalions had each two flags; one avancier colour (in white) and one retirier colour in blue. Both battalions ha imho the same flags and both flags hat the same motifs/coat of arms; see underneath.

Mecklenburg-Schweriner Truppen in den Niederlanden 1788-1796 (K-U Keubke, H. Köbke)
Mecklenburgers onder Nederlandshce vlag 1788-1796

zaterdag 28 maart 2020

Austrian Freikorps 1793

According to the Arteria plates there was a Slavonisch-Croatisches Freikorps which would imho would give some more colour to my Austrian revoluionionary 28mm army. Underneath some pictures; the first one of course of the Arteria plate. 
I tried to find some suitable figures and found the Wagames Foundry Russian Pandour characters which led me to this wagames unit which are close enough for my to add to my FR Austrian army.  

maandag 27 januari 2020

Dutch light infantry in the French Revolution

In the beginning of the French revolutionary period the Dutch army lacked light infantry so after 1793 they added and expanded some units.
Information on the light units is below:

Van Bijlandt
The sole light infantry on the budget for 1792 was the jagerbattalion of Bijlandt (which was renamed from the jager unit of the disbanded Salm legion) consisting of a battalion staf and one grenadier and 4 jager companies.
In 1793 it received a second battalion (from the 2nd batalion of the disbanded Regiment infantry nr 11 Van Dam and so now the Van Bijlandt battalion was expanded to a regiment.
I do not know the theoretical strength of the 2nd batalion (which as Van Dam it would be 1 grenadier and 6 line companies) but probably it would be the same as the 1st battalion (1 grenadier and 4 light companies) as Van Dam had losses in the 1793 campaign.
Probably the first battalion was a real jager battalion while the second battalion was seen a a light battalion and dresed accordingly. 

5th Waldeck
Waldeck delivered to the Dutch 2 line regiments of 2 battalion but also a light battalion which as it first was on half pay in Waldeck, it was taken in service in 1793 and so arrived before the 1793 campaign.
As far as I know, the 5th battalion consisted of 1 jager company and 6 light infantry companies. The uniforms which are know show the difference between jager and light coompanies.

Jagers van Mathieu
This was raised on the 1st of January 1794 but as its commander, Louis Mathieu died in June 1794 its name changed into Korps Jagers Von Heydte. I dont know its strength but probably it had the same strength as the Van Bijlandt.

Garde Walen (Battalion de Perez)
According to Sabron this battalion was used as light troops. Being the former 3rd battalion of the regiment Walen (Walons) it became an independant battalion in 1793.

Field strength
According to Sabron the field strength of various light troops in the beginning of the campaign of 1794 were in officers and men:
Van Bijlandt jagers           198
5th Waldeck                      280
Walen van Perez               280
jagers van Mathieu           277

Some impressions of the uniforms of the various units:

Starting with the Van Bijlandt jager:


Strange is, that the officers of the Bijlandt jager show a more purple facings while the other ranks and the last picture of an officer show red.
The "jassenboekje" shows a dark red on collar, lapels, cuffs and epaulettes with coppper buttons. The trousers are grey.

The Van Bijlandt light battalion:
The 5th battalion Waldeck
The first picture underneath is in my opninion the "normal" Waldeck uniform in blue coat and yellow facings in the period the 5th was on half pay in Waldeck

The uniform in blue and yellow in the pictures underneath are imho the light companies in campaign dress and I think was worn by all the other Waldck regiments

 What follows is the green jäger uniform of the jager company of the 5th battalion. The officer in the second picture wears a 'normal"bicorn; the ranks show a wide brimmed hat.

Jagers van Mathieu/Von Heydte
Raised in 1794 it shows almost the same uniform as Bijlandt, just the facing colour is blue (grey-blue ?) The black and white picture show in the middle an officer in jager uniform.
The "jassenboekje" don't show the bleu facing on the lapels but only blue cuffs. The rest of the uniform incuded trousers is plain green.

Garde Walen (or bataljon de Perez) 
As said earlier, although the picture underneath show a normal line infantry dress, according to Sabron this battalion was calssed as light troops. The normal line uniform is blue with white facings.